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主题: 中国不能依靠2006年的声明避免非礼殡的强制仲裁。

中国不能依靠2006年的声明避免非礼殡的强制仲裁。 2013-05-04 18:49 #1

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Declaration of non-acceptance of any procedure cannot keep China out of UNCLOS arbitration court.

http://bbs.miercn.com/201305/thread_191088_1_2.html

中国应该如何应对国际海洋法庭仲裁通知和菲方的照会呢

Translation:

How should China answer UNCLOS court of arbitration notice and Philippines' note.

据上海《东方早报》分析,按照国际法,确定领土归属是海洋划界的前提和基础。菲方提出的仲裁事项必然涉及相关岛礁主权归属,而领土主权问题不是《联合国海洋法公约》的解释和适用问题。

Translation:

According to the analysis of Shanghai "Eastern Morning Post", according to the international law the determination of sovereignty is a prerequisite and foundation for the demarcation of marine boundary. The arbitration issue put forward by Philippines must involve the sovereignty of the islands. The question of the territorial sovereignty is not a question for the interpretation and application of the provisions of the UNCLOS.

因此,在中菲岛礁争端悬而未决的情况下,菲方提出的仲裁事项不应适用《公约》规定的强制争端解决程序。更何况中国政府于2006年已经根据《公约》第298条的规定提交了声明,将涉及海洋划界等争端排除在包括仲裁在内的强制争端解决程序之外,菲方的仲裁主张明显不成立。因此,中方拒绝接受菲方的仲裁要求,有充分的国际法根据。

Translation:

Therefore, under the condition where the sovereignty issue not having been settled between China and Philippines, the forcible arbitration under the UNCLOS proposed by Philippines is not applicable. Furthermore, the Chinese government had in 2006 and according to the UNCLOS, Section 298 declared to exclude any sea boundary demarcation and such disputes from forcible dispute settlement procedure including arbitration. Philippines' arbitration proposal obviously cannot stand. Therefore, China's refusal to accept Philippines' demand for arbitration has ample international basis.


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http://www.un.org/zh/law/sea/los/article15.shtml

第二九八条
适用第二节的任择性例外
  1. 一国在签署、批准或加入本公约时,或在其后任何时间,在不妨害根据第一节所产生的义务的情形下,可以书面声明对于下列各类争端的一类或一类以上,不接受第二节规定的一种或一种以上的程序:
  (a) (1) 关于划定海洋边界的第十五、第七十四第八十三条在解释或适用上的争端,或涉及历史性海湾或所有权的争端,但如这种争端发生于本公约生效之后,经争端各方谈判仍未能在合理期间内达成协议,则作此声明的国家,经争端任何一方请求,应同意将该事项提交附件五第二节所规定的调解;此外,任何争端如果必然涉及同时审议与大陆或岛屿陆地领土的主权或其他权利有关的任何尚未解决的争端,则不应提交这一程序;


http://www.un.org/depts/los/convention_ ... part15.htm

Article 298

Optional exceptions to applicability of section 2

1. When signing, ratifying or acceding to this Convention or at any time thereafter, a State may, without prejudice to the obligations arising under section 1, declare in writing that it does not accept any one or more of the procedures provided for in section 2 with respect to one or more of the following categories of disputes:

(a) (i) disputes concerning the interpretation or application of articles 15, 74 and 83 relating to sea boundary delimitations, or those involving historic bays or titles, provided that a State having made such a declaration shall, when such a dispute arises subsequent to the entry into force of this Convention and where no agreement within a reasonable period of time is reached in negotiations between the parties, at the request of any party to the dispute, accept submission of the matter to conciliation under Annex V, section 2; and provided further that any dispute that necessarily involves the concurrent consideration of any unsettled dispute concerning sovereignty or other rights over continental or insular land territory shall be excluded from such submission; 


==========================================

国人想因为“中国政府于2006年已经根据《公约》第298条的规定提交了声明,将涉及海洋划界等争端排除在包括仲裁在内的强制争端解决程序之外,菲方的仲裁主张明显不成立”。

不过《公约》第298条也说,”关于划定海洋边界的第十五、第七十四第八十三条在解释或适用上的争端,或涉及历史性海湾或所有权的争端,但如这种争端发生于本公约生效之后,经争端各方谈判仍未能在合理期间内达成协议,则作此声明的国家,经争端任何一方请求,应同意将该事项提交附件五第二节所规定的调解“。这就是说,如果“谈判仍未能在合理期间内达成协议” 那么“作此声明的国家(比如中国)。。。应同意将该事项提交附件五第二节所规定的调解”。

所以尽管中国在2006年有了声明“将涉及海洋划界等争端排除在包括仲裁在内的强制争端解决程序之外”,不过中国如果不能“在合理期间内达成协议”,那么最后中国还是要“同意将该事项提交附件五第二节所规定的调解”。所以中国不能依靠2006年的声明避免非礼殡的强制仲裁。

中国能合理依靠的海洋法以避免非礼殡的强制仲裁是:
同时审议与大陆或岛屿陆地领土的主权或其他权利有关的任何尚未解决的争端,则不应提交这一程序”。也就是说,中国只能说它不愿受仲裁的理由是因为有岛屿陆地领土的主权尚未解决的争端需要同时审议。不过非礼殡说它不同时审议领土的主权。这么一来仲裁员是不是会同意接受非礼殡的意见还在疑问之中。如果仲裁员接受了非礼殡的意见那么这就对中国很不利。 虽然中国能说这不符合海洋法公约,不过仲裁员的决定是没有上诉的。

所以唯一中国能依赖的胜算是尽快把非礼殡的所有人员和设施从8个岛屿赶出去。根本不必再跟他们说什么。中国已经通过中国外交部发言人华春莹向非礼殡发出要求退出中国主权的8个岛屿。下一步中国可以随时执行中国的法律抓非礼殡在中国岛屿的非法移民把他们依法关起来或把他们驱逐。

仲裁员一个是日本人,还有一个是波兰人。这两个都是对中国敌对的人。另外的三个也一定是对中国不友善的人。这样他们一定会判断对菲利殡有利。所以中国现在要马上出兵南海把非礼殡的人员全部赶走。如果这些岛屿都在中国的实际控制那么非礼殡就没有理由要求仲裁任何岛屿利益。就是仲裁法庭判非礼殡胜也没有用。岛屿已经在中国的实际控制,要么非礼殡可以去国际法庭告中国。中国可以不去。那就一了百了。

现在中国在南海是已经很危险。如果还慢吞吞的一天过一天,那么有一天中国人会忽然间发现他们莫名其妙的失去了南海。那时侯就悔之莫及。

===================================================



The Chinese article said that since the Chinese government had made a declaration in 2006 under Article 298 to exclude disputes involving sea boundary demarcation from the forcible procedure for dispute resolution, China does not need to submit to arbitration proposal brought by Philippines. Actually this is not entirely correct. Article 298 states, " a State having made such a declaration shall, when such a dispute arises ... and where no agreement within a reasonable period of time is reached, ... at the request of any party to the dispute, accept submission of the matter to conciliation under Annex V, section 2;

In other words, it doesn't matter what kind of declaration China had made to exclude "any one or more of the procedures provided for in section 2 with respect to one or more of the following categories of disputes". In the end China must still submit to conciliation under Annex V, section 2 if “no agreement within a reasonable period of time is reached”. The only thing that can legally keep China out of accepting arbitration is the clause "any dispute that necessarily involves the concurrent consideration of any unsettled dispute concerning sovereignty or other rights over continental or insular land territory shall be excluded from such submission". Therefore, China can refuse to submit to arbitration not based on its declaration in 2006 but on the requirement to exclude from any submission "concurrent consideration of any unsettled dispute concerning sovereignty".

It is because of the requirement to exclude any concurrent consideration of dispute involving unsettled sovereignty that Philippines had specified that it does not seek to settle the sovereignty question during the arbitration. This might remove the "concurrent consideration" problem. So, the question for the arbitration court is whether it will accept Philippines argument that the arbitration court can have jurisdiction to settle whatever other disputes Philippines is submitting to it without "concurrently" touching the sovereignty dispute. If the arbitration court decided it can, then it will go ahead to make a decision. Then there will be all kinds of problems for China. A decision in favor of Philippines can then put heavy pressure on China due to the world opinion. It will give the Chinese compradors and assorted traitors the ammunition to force the Chinese government to abandon sovereignty disputes.

Of course, China can reject the arbitration court's decision and use force to take the islands based on China's historical evidence as it has been saying for many decades. But given the weakness and indecisiveness of the Chinese government and the exceptional influence of the compradors and foreign bought traitors, nobody knows how the Chinese government will ultimately do. Therefore, it is of burning urgency that the Chinese government now move quickly to evict the Filipino personnel on the 8 Chinese islands and features. Once the Filipinos have all been evicted then China can unambiguously claim to be in full occupation and control of the islands and features. Then Philippines has no legal standing to be claiming any EEZ or continental shelf or any other rights under the UNCLOS provisions when it is not in demonstrable occupation and control over any of these islands and features. In other words, Philippines cannot claim any sovereign rights such as EEZ based on islands it does not occupy and control, let alone own. Hence it cannot even have any basis for bringing anything for arbitration against China.

Many Chinese have tried to lull the Chinese government into complacency with the refrain that time is on China's side. They say China is growing richer and more powerful by the day. So why make waves unsettling the situation in the S. China Sea? Let the sleeping dog lie. As China grow richer and stronger, it can easily settle the problem in due time some time in the future. This line of argument is dangerous because the situation is not always under the control of China. By bribing the judges or using political pressure on the judges, Philippines with the help of America and Japan can motivate the judges to twist the laws around to make unjust but plausible decisions. And since the judges' decisions are final there is no appeal. So even if China can condemn the decision to be corrupted it will be too late. Therefore, China must immediately act to safeguard its sovereignty by using force rather than relying on dangerously uncertain foreign judges who can be counted on to be prejudiced against China.

China must give Philippines an ultimatum to evacuate its personnel by the end of May or sooner - preferably sooner. If any Filipinos were found on any of the 8 Chinese sovereign islands on the morning of June 1, 2013 or whenever the ultimatum expired then Chinese Maritime authorities and the Chinese naval authorities will execute Chinese laws and arrest them. Once all Filipinos are arrested and evacuated from the islands, then there is no sovereignty disputes. These are all Chinese sovereign territories. Philippines will then have no legal rights to demand any EEZ or anything else based on islands they do not occupy or control. If Philippines still want to dispute sovereignty then it will have to go to the ICJ or World Court. There, China can simply refuse to go to court.

This is the most certain way for China to safeguard its sovereignty. It is nonsense that evicting Filipinos will collapse the Chinese economy. America is not going to shut down Malacca St. even if China sank a hundred Filipino naval vessels or kill a thousand Filipino invaders in the process of evicting them from Chinese sovereign islands. Americans, Japnese, Vietnamese, and assorted western stooges will of course scream to the high heavens. But as loudly as they will scream they will not do anything. And having established sovereignty over the 8 islands, China will have served a warning on Vietnam. Then the Vietnamese will quickly settled the dispute with joint development or China can use the same formula and kick all the Vietnamese out of the 9-Dotted Line waters. If the Vietnamese chose to fight then let China fight. This would not be the first time China has fought Vietnam. And the fighting will be good for China by giving the Chinese military valuable experience.

On the other hand, if China did not evict the Filipinos with force and the arbitration court ruled against China, then China will have even bigger problems. Vietnam will immediately follow suit and ended up gobbling up even more of China's sovereign territories. Similarly with Japan. Even Malaysia and Brunei will be emboldened to use the same tactic. Therefore, China simply cannot take the risk of depending on the arbitration court to do the right thing. China has no time to lose. It must act resolutely now because the chances of arbitration court finding in favor of China is practically nil. Therefore, it is China taking back its sovereign islands with force or lose it without a fight. If Philippines gained tens of thousands of square kilometers of Chinese sovereign waters and hundreds of billions of dollars of valuable oil and gas and other resources then the Chinese people will condemn the CCP government for ten thousands years as corrupt traitors.

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中国不能依靠2006年的声明避免非礼殡的强制仲裁。 2013-05-07 07:16 #2

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第十五部分 争端的解决
第二九八条适用第二节的任择性例外
  1. 一国在签署、批准或加入本公约时,或在其后任何时间,在不妨害根据第一节所产生的义务的情形下,可以书面声明对于下列各类争端的一类或一类以上,不接受第二节规定的一种或一种以上的程序:
  (a) (1) 关于划定海洋边界的第十五、第七十四第八十三条在解释或适用上的争端,或涉及历史性海湾或所有权的争端,但如这种争端发生于本公约生效之后,经争端各方谈判仍未能在合理期间内达成协议,则作此声明的国家,经争端任何一方请求,应同意将该事项提交附件五第二节所规定的调解;此外,任何争端如果必然涉及同时审议与大陆或岛屿陆地领土的主权或其他权利有关的任何尚未解决的争端,则不应提交这一程序;

第十五部分 争端的解决
第二八八条 管辖权
  1. 第二八七条所指的法院或法庭,对于按照本部分向其提出的有关本公约的解释或适用的任何争端,应具有管辖权。
  2. 第二八七条所指的法院或法庭,对于按照与本公约的目的有关的国际协定向其提出的有关该协议的解释或适用的任何争端,也应具有管辖权。
  3. 按照附件六设立的国际海洋法法庭海底争端分庭的第十一部分第五节所指的任何其他分庭或仲裁法庭,对按照该节向其提出的任何事项,应具有管辖权。
  4. 对于法院或法庭是否具有管辖权如果发生争端,这一问题应由该法院或法庭以裁定解决

附件七仲裁第十一条 裁决的确定性
  除争端各方事前议定某种上诉程序外,裁决应有确定性,不得上诉,争端各方均应遵守裁决。


现在中国很危险是因为:
现在非礼殡是把这个争端以附件七仲裁告到了海洋法公约。在附件七仲裁法庭,管辖权是由法庭自己裁定解决。

附件七仲裁第九条 不到案
  如争端一方不出庭或对案件不进行辩护,他方可请示仲裁法庭继续进行程序并作出裁决争端一方缺席或不对案件进行辩护,应不妨碍程序的进行。仲裁法庭在作出裁决前,必须不但查明对该争端确有管辖权,而且查明所提要求在事实上和法庭上均确有根据。


就是中国不出席也不能阻止“仲裁法庭继续进行程序并作出裁决”。

所以如果仲裁法庭裁定它有管辖权那它就可以仲裁非礼殡的所提要求。那时就是中国抗议不出席也不能阻止仲裁法庭做对非礼殡有益的裁决。仲裁法庭的裁决不得上诉。也就是说中国完败了。也就是说中国南海领海被抢了。

所以中国人要明白他们现在的危险。在非礼殡的贿赂和美国的压力之下仲裁法庭一定是判对非礼殡有益。中国领导者应该马上采取行动避免这个危险。不然南海就没了。唯一的补救方法就是马上把非礼殡人从南海所有岛屿赶掉。

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中国不能依靠2006年的声明避免非礼殡的强制仲裁。 2013-05-28 23:19 #3

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我看中国大陆根本不必陪菲驴在所谓的仲裁法庭跳舞。越搭理它,它闹腾得越起劲。
少跟菲驴废话,还是实控最为关键。从已经尘埃落定的黄岩岛到目前仍在胶着状态的仁爱礁,中国大陆政府的表现与作为总体算得上得体与高明,值得肯定与称赞。

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